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Effects of Spanish immersion on children's native English vocabulary were studied. Matched on grade, sex, and verbal scores on a 4th-grade Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT), 30 5th- and 6th-grade immersion students and 30 English monolinguals did 60 consecutive Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) items. The CAT and conventionally scored PPVT revealed comparable verbal ability between groups, but on 60 consecutive PPVT items, immersion did better than control because of cognates. On SECT, immersion significantly outperformed students in the control group. Findings support the idea that Spanish immersion has English-language benefits and that positive transfer (cross linguistic influence) occurs from Spanish as a foreign language to native English receptive vocabulary.
Increasing native English vocabulary recognition through Spanish immersion: Cognate transfer from foreign to first language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 37-49. from PsycINFO database.
Cunningham, T. H., & Graham, C. R. (2000).
This study analyzes the effect of one year of daily Latin instruction (15- to 20-minute lessons) on academic achievement, as measured by the vocabulary section of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Thirty four fifth- and sixth-grade experimental subjects were matched with an equal number of control group subjects on measures of Iowatest score (from the previous year), grade level, and neighborhood. The authors note, however, that the neighborhood matching only provided a "rough control over socioeconomic factors." Results indicated that fifth-grade students in the experimental group were functioning on grade level (sixth month of fifth grade) on the English vocabulary measure while the control group scored one year below grade level. The authors concluded that Latin instruction was effective in building English vocabulary of experimental group students.
Evaluation of the elementary school (FLES) Latin program 1970-71.R7202, Report: R-7202. 53.
Hoffenberg, R. M., et al. (1971).
This article examines the linguistic benefits of Latin in light of recent research which seems to document the relevance of Latin in building English vocabulary and reading skills. Evidence is cited from eight educational projects in which an experimental group of students taking Latin, and a control group not taking Latin, were pretested, posttested, and compared with regard to English verbal skills. In each case, the Latin students showed significant gains over the control group. Other studies supporting these findings are cited, as well as projects presently being conducted. These studies yield important pedagogical implications: (1) educational administrators and curriculum specialists should consider the significance of Latin in improving language skills; (2) the language profession should assume the responsibility of disseminating information about this research; and (3) responsible educators should combat the tendency to ignore research data for budgetary or other reasons.
Tangible benefits of the study of Latin: A review of research. Foreign Language Annals, 10(375), 382. From ERIC database.
Masciantonio, R. (1977).