ACTFL Assessments are recognized as the gold standard. ACTFL proficiency tests are used worldwide by academic institutions, government agencies, and private corporations.
Use our Educator Resources to guide your curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Roadmap to guide learners to develop competence to communicate effectively.
A roadmap for what learners should be able to do as they learn a language.
Set goals and chart progress towards language and intercultural proficiency.
Get guidance and discover what is effective in language learning.
Explore real-world spontaneous situations by skill or level.
Find resources to improve your practice around a variety of important issues.
The present study investigated the effects of bilingualism on the creativity and social problem-solving skills of 84 Hispanic children from Spanish-speaking homes. The subjects were students from a small city school district in the New York metropolitan area. Only students demonstrating high levels of proficiency (60% or higher on the Language Assessment Battery) were considered to be proficient in the language being assessed. Students who demonstrated proficiency in both Spanish and English were considered 'bilingual' for the purposes of the study. Those meeting the criterion in only one language were considered to be 'monolingual.' The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking was administered as the measure of creativity, and the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale was used to measure social problem-solving abilities. The Ravens Progressive Matrices were used to measure general cognitive ability. General cognitive ability was used as a covariate in the statistical analyses. The results indicated that the bilingual children outperformed their monolingual counterparts in the area of social problem solving, but not in the area of creativity. The positive relationship seen between bilingualism and social problem solving further strengthens the research in the area of the positive advantages of bilingualism.
Bilingualism, creativity, and social problem-solving.(PhD, Fordham University).
Stephens, Mary Ann Advisor: Esquivel, Giselle B. (1997).