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Reading

Distinguished      |      Superior      |      Advanced      |      Intermediate      |      Novice

The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines 2012—Reading describe five major levels of proficiency: Distinguished, Superior, Advanced, Intermediate, and Novice.  The description of each major level is representative of a specific range of abilities.  Together these levels form a hierarchy in which each level subsumes all lower levels.  The major levels Advanced, Intermediate, and Novice are divided into High, Mid, and Low sublevels.  The subdivision of the Advanced level is new.  This makes the Reading descriptions parallel to the other skill level descriptions.

Reading is an interpretive skill. Reading comprehension is largely based on the amount of information readers can retrieve from a text, and the inferences and connections that they can make within and across texts.  By describing the tasks that readers can perform with different types of texts and under different types of circumstances, the Reading Proficiency Guidelines describe how readers read texts and retrieve information. These Guidelines do not describe how reading skills develop, how one learns to read, nor the actual cognitive processes involved in the activity of reading. Rather, they are intended to describe what readers are able to understand from what they read.

The written descriptions of reading proficiency are accompanied online by authentic text samples and the functional reading tasks associated with each major level.   

The ACTFL Proficiency Guideline 2012—Reading may be used for non-profit, educational purposes only, provided that they are reproduced in their entirety, with no alterations, and with credit to ACTFL.

DISTINGUISHED

At the Distinguished level, readers can understand a wide variety of texts from many genres including professional, technical, academic, and literary.1 These texts are characterized by one or more of the following: a high level of abstraction, precision or uniqueness of vocabulary; density of information; cultural reference;2 or complexity of structure. Readers are able to comprehend implicit and inferred information, tone, and point of view3 and can follow highly persuasive arguments. They are able to understand unpredictable turns of thought related to sophisticated topics.

Readers at the Distinguished level are able to understand writing tailored to specific audiences as well as a number of historical, regional, and colloquial variations of the language. These readers are able to appreciate the richness of written language.  Distinguished-level readers understand and appreciate texts that use highly precise, low-frequency vocabulary as well as complex rhetorical structures to convey subtle or highly specialized information.  Such texts are typically essay length but may be excerpts from more lengthy texts.
 
Distinguished-level readers comprehend language from within the cultural framework and are able to understand a writer’s use of nuance and subtlety. However, they may still have difficulty fully understanding certain nonstandard varieties of the written language.

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SUPERIOR

At the Superior Level, readers are able to understand texts from many genres dealing with a wide range of subjects, both familiar and unfamiliar.  Comprehension is no longer limited to the reader’s familiarity with subject matter, but also comes from a command of the language that is supported by a broad vocabulary, an understanding of complex structures and knowledge of the target culture.  Readers at the Superior level can draw inferences from textual and extralinguistic clues.   
 
Superior-level readers understand texts that use precise, often specialized vocabulary and complex grammatical structures. These texts feature argumentation, supported opinion, and hypothesis, and use abstract linguistic formulations as encountered in academic and professional reading.  Such texts are typically reasoned and/or analytic and may frequently contain cultural references.
 
Superior-level readers are able to understand lengthy texts of a professional, academic or literary nature.  In addition, readers at the Superior level are generally aware of the aesthetic properties of language and of its literary styles,4 but may not fully understand texts in which culturalreferences and assumptions are deeply embedded.

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ADVANCED

At the Advanced level, readers can understand the main idea and supporting details of authentic narrative and descriptive texts.  Readers are able to compensate for limitations in their lexical and structural knowledge by using contextual clues.5 Comprehension is likewise supported by knowledge of the conventions of the language (e.g., noun/adjective agreement, verb placement, etc.).6  When familiar with the subject matter, Advanced-level readers are also able to derive some meaning from straightforward argumentative texts, e.g., recognizing the main argument.
 
Advanced-level readers are able to understand texts that have a clear and predictable structure. For the most part, the prose is uncomplicated and the subject matter pertains to real-world topics of general interest.
 
Advanced-level readers demonstrate an independence in their ability to read subject matter that is new to them. They have sufficient control of standard linguistic conventions to understand sequencing, time frames and chronology.7 However, these readers are likely challenged by texts in which issues are treated abstractly.

Advanced High

At the Advanced High sublevel, readers are able to understand, fully and with ease, conventional narrative and descriptive texts of any length as well as more complex factual material.  They are able to follow some of the essential points of argumentative texts in areas of special interest or knowledge. In addition, they are able to understand parts of texts that deal with unfamiliar topics or situations.  These readers are able to go beyond comprehension of the facts in a text, and to begin to recognize author-intended inferences.  An emerging awareness of the aesthetic properties of language and of its literary styles permits comprehension of a wide variety of texts. Misunderstandings may occur when reading texts that are structurally and/or conceptually more complex.8

Advanced Mid

At the Advanced Mid sublevel, readers are able to understand conventional narrative and descriptive texts, such as expanded descriptions of persons, places, and things9 and narrations about past, present, and future events. These texts reflect the standard linguistic conventions of the written form of the language in such a way that readers can predict what they are going to read.  Readers understand the main ideas, facts, and many supporting details. Comprehension derives not only from situational and subject-matter knowledge but also from knowledge of the language itself. Readers at this level may derive some meaning from texts that are structurally and/or conceptually more complex.

Advanced Low

At the Advanced Low sublevel, readers are able to understand conventional narrative and descriptive texts with a clear underlying structure though their comprehension may be uneven.  These texts predominantly contain high-frequency vocabulary and structures. Readers understand the main ideas, and some supporting details. Comprehension may often derive primarily from situational and subject-matter knowledge. Readers at this level will be challenged to comprehend more complex texts.

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INTERMEDIATE

At the Intermediate level, readers can understand information conveyed in simple, predictable, loosely connected texts.  Readers rely heavily on contextual clues. They can most easily understand information if the format of the text is familiar, such as in a weather report or a social announcement.  
 
Intermediate-level readers are able to understand texts that convey basic information such as that found in announcements, notices, and online bulletin boards and forums.10 These texts are non-complex and have a predictable pattern of presentation. The discourse is minimally connected and primarily organized in individual sentences and strings of sentences containing predominantly high-frequency vocabulary.
 
Intermediate-level readers are most accurate when getting meaning from simple, straightforward texts.  They are able to understand messages found in highly familiar, everyday contexts.  At this level, readers may not fully understand texts that are detailed or those texts in which knowledge of language structures is essential in order to understand sequencing, time frame, and chronology.11

Intermediate High

At the Intermediate High sublevel, readers are able to understand fully and with ease short, non-complex texts that convey basic information and deal with personal and social topics to which the reader brings personal interest or knowledge.  These readers are also able to understand some connected texts featuring description and narration although there will be occasional gaps in understanding due to a limited knowledge of the vocabulary, structures, and writing conventions of the language.

Intermediate Mid

At the Intermediate Mid sublevel, readers are able to understand short, non-complex texts that convey basic information and deal with basic personal and social topics to which the reader brings personal interest or knowledge, although some misunderstandings may occur.   Readers at this level may get some meaning from short connected texts featuring description and narration, dealing with familiar topics. 

Intermediate Low

At the Intermediate Low sublevel, readers are able to understand some information from the simplest connected texts dealing with a limited number of personal and social needs, although there may be frequent misunderstandings. Readers at this level will be challenged to derive meaning from connected texts of any length.

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NOVICE

At the Novice level, readers can understand key words and cognates, as well as formulaic phrases that are highly contextualized.

Novice-level readers are able to get a limited amount of information from highly predictable texts in which the topic or context is very familiar, such as a hotel bill, a credit card receipt or a weather map. Readers at the Novice level may rely heavily on their own background knowledge and extralinguistic support (such as the imagery on the weather map or the format of a credit card bill) to derive meaning,   

Readers at the Novice level are best able to understand a text when they are able to anticipate the information in the text. At the Novice level recognition of key words, cognates, and formulaic phrases makes comprehension possible.

Novice High

At the Novice High sublevel, readers can understand, fully and with relative ease, key words and cognates, as well as formulaic phrases across a range of highly contextualized texts. Where vocabulary has been learned, they can understand predictable language and messages such as those found on train schedules, roadmaps, and street signs. Readers at the Novice High sublevel are typically able to derive meaning from short, non-complex texts that convey basic information for which there is contextual or extralinguistic support.

Novice Mid

At the Novice Mid sublevel, readers are able to recognize the letters12 or symbols of an alphabetic or syllabic writing system or a limited number of characters in a character-based language. They can identify a number of highly contextualized words and phrases including cognates and borrowed words but rarely understand material that exceeds a single phrase.  Rereading is often required.

Novice Low

At the Novice Low sublevel, readers are able to recognize a limited number of letters, symbols or characters.  They are occasionally able to identify high-frequency words and/or phrases when strongly supported by context.

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Turkish Annotations

1  Examples of a wide variety of such texts may be found in humanities and social science journals such as Tarih ve Toplum, Kebikeç, and Milliyet Sanat, some editorials, and satirical  publications.

2  Distinguished level readers are able to comprehend the message and nuance from allusions to sayings, proverbs, and other cultural references, for example, Almancı (guest workers in Germany); çapulcu (looter).

3  In such texts as newspaper editorials employing varying ideologically charged discourses reporting the same event.

4  Superior level readers are able to appreciate poetic use of unorthodox word order. For example: Birçok gidenin her biri memnun ki yerinden, Birçok seneler geçti dönen yok seferinden. (Many of those who left must be happy with their places. Many years have passed and no one has returned from his journey.)

5  Advanced level readers  may use contextual clues for understanding the full message, but they are passive in the reading. Uçmak (to fly) will offer a clue for structures not fully understandable such as uçarcasına (as if flying). The Turkish lexicon will remain a challenge.

6  Advanced level readers can fully comprehend the functions of case markers, genitive-possessive agreement, and embedded clause suffixation, such as -DIK, -(y)AcAK, -(y)An.

7  Advanced level readers are able to differentiate the functions of the two past tense markers –DI and –mIş. For example: Ankara başkent oldu. (Ankara became the capital.) Yağmur yağmış. (Apparently it rained.)

8   Advanced High level readers may misinterpret passive forms like bulunmak when used in complex sentences such as: İlgili öğrencilerin bu duyuruları takip ederek başvuruda bulunmaları gerekmektedir. (It is necessary for interested students to follow these announcements and to apply.)

9  Advanced Mid level readers may be able to follow rhetorical devices such as doublings, çoluk çocuk (kit and caboodle); and the use of intensifiers kapkaranlık (thoroughly dark).

10  Intermediate level readers may have difficulty comprehending the basic message in structurally complex announcements. For example: ACİL YATILI BAKICI ARANIYOR! (URGENT: STAY HOME CARE GIVER IS SOUGHT!)

11  E.g., Intermediate level readers might misinterpret the sequence of placement of the conditional: Gelseydi (if she had come) vs. Geldiyse (if she has arrived).

12  Novice readers are able to recognize the letters specific to Turkish, ç, ğ, ı, ö, ş, ü.