The following pages present Turkish annotations and samples for the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines 2012 - Speaking. These annotations and samples are intended to help Turkish teachers, learners, and assessment specialists to better understand the generic ACTFL Guidelines and relate them to the teaching and testing of spoken Turkish. The annotations and samples can serve as support materials as teachers design more appropriate tasks for learners.
The speech samples that appear on this website are taken from interviews conducted by teachers of Turkish with native and non-native speakers. The selections help in providing concrete samples that illustrate the Guidelines in very specific performance situations.
When listening to the speech samples and reading the rationales, the following statement should be taken into account:
The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines 2012 - Speaking describe functional spoken language proficiency from that of a highly articulate, well-educated speaker to that of a person with little or no functional ability to use the language to accomplish linguistic tasks. There are tasks that are unique to each major level as well as a set of other assessment criteria (content/context, text type, accuracy/comprehensibility) associated with each level. A rating for a level is assigned to reflect a speaker's ability to successfully sustain all the assessment criteria for the given level.
Speakers at the Distinguished level are able to use language skillfully, and with accuracy, efficiency, and effectiveness. They are educated and articulate users of the language. They can reflect on a wide range of global issues and highly abstract concepts in a culturally appropriate manner. Distinguished-level speakers can use persuasive and hypothetical discourse for representational purposes, allowing them to advocate a point of view that is not necessarily their own. They can tailor language to a variety of audiences by adapting their speech and register in ways that are culturally authentic.
Speakers at the Distinguished level produce highly sophisticated and tightly organized extended discourse. At the same time, they can speak succinctly, often using cultural and historical references to allow them to say less and mean more.1 At this level, oral discourse typically resembles written discourse.
A non-native accent, a lack of a native-like economy of expression, a limited control of deeply embedded cultural references, and/or an occasional isolated language error may still be present at this level.
Rationale for Rating
Distinguished-level speaker This sample demonstrates the Distinguished-level speaker’s ability to handle the topic of globalization and its impact on the unit of the nation-state in different parts of the world. The speaker uses highly abstract, internally organized, extended discourse. He discusses concrete and abstract borders. He compares and contrasts the nation-state in different time frames to persuade his listener that the nation-state is under siege in the globalized, contemporary world. The language is crafted in an articulate fashion, accurately and effectively. It demonstrates a sophisticated grammatical and lexical range. Use of vocabulary is precise and succinct; rich in cultural references and highly articulate, this speech is tailored to persuade a well-educated audience. The speaker’s discourse resembles written discourse.
Speakers at the Superior level are able to communicate with accuracy and fluency in order to participate fully and effectively in conversations on a variety of topics in formal and informal settings from both concrete and abstract perspectives. They discuss their interests and special fields of competence, explain complex matters in detail, and provide lengthy and coherent narrations, all with ease, fluency, and accuracy. They present their opinions on a number of issues of interest to them, such as social and political issues, and provide structured argument to support these opinions. They are able to construct and develop hypotheses to explore alternative possibilities.
When appropriate, these speakers use extended discourse without unnaturally lengthy hesitation to make their point, even when engaged in abstract elaborations. Such discourse, while coherent, may still be influenced by language patterns other than those of the target language. Superior-level speakers employ a variety of interactive and discourse strategies, such as turn-taking and separating main ideas from supporting information through the use of syntactic, lexical, and phonetic devices.
Speakers at the Superior level demonstrate no pattern of error in the use of basic structures, although they may make sporadic errors, particularly in low-frequency structures2 and in complex high-frequency structures. Such errors, if they do occur, do not distract the native interlocutor or interfere with communication.3
Rationale for Rating
Superior-level speaker: Abstract Treatment This sample provides evidence of the Superior-level speaker’s ability to deal with a topic abstractly, in this case, the historical situation in the early 20th century as the Soviet Union and Republic of Turkey fought for hegemony over the Caucasus. The speaker communicates with confidence, accuracy and fluency, and without any evidence of unnatural hesitation, to explain this historical moment in the relations between the three powers. In this sample of internally-organized, Superior-level abstract speech, the speaker supports his argument with concrete examples that are woven into this description of power dynamics in West Asia. He uses precise vocabulary that is relevant to the topic, and is able to separate main ideas from supporting information by organizing his response into various components.
Speakers at the Advanced level engage in conversation in a clearly participatory manner in order to communicate information on autobiographical topics, as well as topics of community, national, or international interest. The topics are handled concretely by means of narration and description in the major times frames of past, present, and future.4 These speakers can also deal with a social situation with an unexpected complication. The language of Advanced-level speakers is abundant, the oral paragraph being the measure of Advanced-level length and discourse.5 Advanced-level speakers have sufficient control of basic structures and generic vocabulary to be understood by native speakers of the language, including those unaccustomed to non-native speech.
Speakers at the Advanced High sublevel perform all Advanced-level tasks with linguistic ease, confidence and competence. They are consistently able to explain in detail and narrate fully and accurately in all time frames. In addition, Advanced High speakers handle the tasks pertaining to the Superior level but cannot sustain performance at that level across a variety of topics. They may provide a structured argument to support their opinions, and they may construct hypotheses, but patterns of error appear. They can discuss some topics abstractly, especially those relating to their particular interests and special fields of expertise, but in general, they are more comfortable discussing a variety of topics concretely.
Advanced High speakers may demonstrate a well-developed ability to compensate for an imperfect grasp of some forms or for limitations in vocabulary by the confident use of communicative strategies, such as paraphrasing, circumlocution, and illustration. They use precise vocabulary and intonation to express meaning and often show great fluency and ease of speech.6 However, when called on to perform the complex tasks associated with the Superior level over a variety of topics, their language will at times break down or prove inadequate, or they may avoid the task altogether, for example, by resorting to simplification through the use of description or narration in place of argument or hypothesis.
Turkish speakers at the Advanced Mid sublevel are able to handle with ease and confidence a large number of communicative tasks. They participate actively in most informal and some formal exchanges on a variety of concrete topics relating to work, school, home, and leisure activities, as well as topics relating to events of current, public, and personal interest or individual relevance.
Advanced Mid speakers demonstrate the ability to narrate and describe in the major time frames of past7, present, and future by providing a full account, with good control of aspect. Narration and description tend to be combined and interwoven to relate relevant and supporting facts in connected, paragraph-length discourse.
Advanced Mid speakers can handle successfully and with relative ease the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events that occurs within the context of a routine situation or communicative task with which they are otherwise familiar. Communicative strategies such as circumlocution or rephrasing are often employed for this purpose. The speech of Advanced Mid speakers performing Advanced-level tasks is marked by substantial flow. Their vocabulary is fairly extensive although primarily generic in nature, except in the case of a particular area of specialization or interest. Their discourse may still reflect the oral paragraph structure of their own language rather than that of the target language.
Advanced Mid speakers contribute to conversations on a variety of familiar topics, dealt with concretely, with much accuracy, clarity and precision, and they convey their intended message without misrepresentation or confusion. They are readily understood by native speakers unaccustomed to dealing with non-natives. When called on to perform functions or handle topics associated with the Superior level, the quality and/or quantity of their speech will generally decline.
Speakers at the Advanced Low sublevel are able to handle a variety of communicative tasks. They are able to participate in most informal and some formal conversations on topics related to school, home, and leisure activities. They can also speak about some topics related to employment, current events, and matters of public and community interest.
Advanced Low speakers demonstrate the ability to narrate and describe in the major time frames of past, present and future in paragraph-length discourse with some control of aspect. In these narrations and descriptions, Advanced Low speakers combine and link sentences into connected discourse of paragraph length, although these narrations and descriptions tend to be handled separately rather than interwoven. They can handle appropriately the essential linguistic challenges presented by a complication or an unexpected turn of events.
Responses produced by Advanced Low speakers are typically not longer than a single paragraph. The speaker’s dominant language may be evident in the use of false cognates, literal translations, or the oral paragraph structure of that language. At times their discourse may be minimal for the level, marked by an irregular flow, and containing noticeable self-correction. More generally, the performance of Advanced Low speakers tends to be uneven.
Advanced Low speech is typically marked by a certain grammatical roughness8 (e.g., inconsistent control of verb endings), but the overall performance of the Advanced-level tasks is sustained, albeit minimally. The vocabulary of Advanced Low speakers often lacks specificity. Nevertheless, Advanced Low speakers are able to use communicative strategies such as rephrasing and circumlocution.9
Advanced Low speakers contribute to the conversation with sufficient accuracy, clarity, and precision to convey their intended message without misrepresentation or confusion. Their speech can be understood by native speakers unaccustomed to dealing with non-natives, even though this may require some repetition or restatement. When attempting to perform functions or handle topics associated with the Superior level, the linguistic quality and quantity of their speech will deteriorate significantly.
Advanced-level speaker: Home Description
This Advanced-level description of the speaker’s home is precise and rich in detail. The speaker makes a detailed description which starts with general details about the square footage of the home, and continues to inform the listener with more details about each room of the apartment. The Advanced-level speaker is clearly comprehensible, and organizes the discourse in paragraphs, interconnecting the description as she moves from room to room. She describes the spatial relationship between the rooms, the color scheme, and at times she offers tidbits of information about the family reactions to parts of her home. The speaker is fluent and does not have any pronunciation issues. She uses a very large and varied vocabulary to provide this thorough description.
Advanced-level speaker: Past Narration
This sample shows the Advanced-level speaker’s ability to engage in a conversation in a clearly participatory manner in order to communicate information of an autobiographical nature. The speaker describes a past event in which he met the woman he later married. The speaker handles the topic concretely and the discourse is organized in interconnected sentences in the form of a paragraph. His message is clearly understood by native speakers of the language, including those not accustomed to non-native speech. He provides sequencing and background information.
Speakers at the Intermediate level are distinguished primarily by their ability to create with the language when talking about familiar topics related to their daily life. They are able to recombine learned material in order to express personal meaning. Intermediate-level speakers can ask simple questions10 and can handle a straightforward survival situation. They produce sentence-level language, ranging from discrete sentences to strings of sentences, typically in present time. Intermediate-level speakers are understood by interlocutors who are accustomed to dealing with non-native learners of the language.
Intermediate High speakers are able to converse with ease and confidence when dealing with the routine tasks and social situations of the Intermediate level. They are able to handle successfully uncomplicated tasks and social situations requiring an exchange of basic information related to their work, school, recreation, particular interests and areas of competence.
Intermediate High speakers can handle a substantial number of tasks associated with the Advanced level, but they are unable to sustain performance of all of these tasks all of the time. Intermediate High speakers can narrate and describe in all major time frames using connected discourse of paragraph length, but not all the time. Typically, when Intermediate High speakers attempt to perform Advanced-level tasks, their speech exhibits one or more features of breakdown, such as the failure to carry out fully the narration or description in the appropriate major time frame, an inability to maintain paragraph-length discourse, or a reduction in breadth and appropriateness of vocabulary.
Intermediate High speakers can generally be understood by native speakers unaccustomed to dealing with non-natives, although interference from another language may be evident (e.g., use of code-switching, false cognates, literal translations), and a pattern of gaps in communication may occur.
Speakers at the Intermediate Mid sublevel are able to handle successfully a variety of uncomplicated communicative tasks in straightforward social situations. Conversation is generally limited to those predictable and concrete exchanges necessary for survival in the target culture. These include personal information related to self, family, home, daily activities, interests and personal preferences, as well as physical and social needs, such as food, shopping, travel and lodging.
Intermediate Mid speakers tend to function reactively, for example, by responding to direct questions or requests for information. However, they are capable of asking a variety of questions when necessary to obtain simple information to satisfy basic needs, such as directions, prices and services. When called on to perform functions or handle topics at the Advanced level, they provide some information but have difficulty linking ideas, manipulating time and aspect, and using communicative strategies, such as circumlocution.
Intermediate Mid speakers are able to express personal meaning by creating with the language, in part by combining and recombining known elements and conversational input to produce responses typically consisting of sentences and strings of sentences. Their speech may contain pauses, reformulations and self-corrections as they search for adequate vocabulary and appropriate language forms to express themselves. In spite of the limitations in their vocabulary and/or pronunciation and/or grammar and/or syntax, Intermediate Mid speakers are generally understood by sympathetic interlocutors accustomed to dealing with non-natives.
Overall, Intermediate Mid speakers are at ease when performing Intermediate-level tasks and do so with significant quantity and quality of Intermediate-level language.
Speakers at the Intermediate Low sublevel are able to handle successfully a limited number of uncomplicated communicative tasks by creating with the language in straightforward social situations. Conversation is restricted to some of the concrete exchanges and predictable topics necessary for survival in the target-language culture. These topics relate to basic personal information; for example, self and family, some daily activities and personal preferences, and some immediate needs, such as ordering food and making simple purchases. At the Intermediate Low sublevel, speakers are primarily reactive and struggle to answer direct questions or requests for information. They are also able to ask a few appropriate questions. Intermediate Low speakers manage to sustain the functions of the Intermediate level, although just barely.
Intermediate Low speakers express personal meaning by combining and recombining what they know and what they hear from their interlocutors into short statements and discrete sentences. Their responses are often filled with hesitancy and inaccuracies as they search for appropriate linguistic forms and vocabulary while attempting to give form to the message. Their speech is characterized by frequent pauses, ineffective reformulations and self-corrections. Their pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax are strongly influenced by their first language. In spite of frequent misunderstandings that may require repetition or rephrasing, Intermediate Low speakers can generally be understood by sympathetic interlocutors, particularly by those accustomed to dealing with non-natives.
Intermediate-level speaker: Sentence level discourse, Daily life
In this Intermediate-level sample, the speaker recombines learned material to produce sentence-level discourse about his routine during his busiest day of the week. The speaker shows some lack of control of high frequency structures, makes some grammar errors, but a sympathetic listener would not have difficulty in comprehending his message.
Novice-level speakers can communicate short messages on highly predictable, everyday topics that affect them directly. They do so primarily through the use of isolated words and phrases that have been encountered, memorized, and recalled. Novice-level speakers may be difficult to understand even by the most sympathetic interlocutors accustomed to non-native speech.11
Speakers at the Novice High sublevel are able to handle a variety of tasks pertaining to the Intermediate level, but are unable to sustain performance at that level. They are able to manage successfully a number of uncomplicated communicative tasks in straightforward social situations. Conversation is restricted to a few of the predictable topics necessary for survival in the target language culture, such as basic personal information, basic objects, and a limited number of activities, preferences and immediate needs. Novice High speakers respond to simple, direct questions or requests for information. They are also able to ask a few formulaic questions.
Novice High speakers are able to express personal meaning by relying heavily on learned phrases or recombinations of these and what they hear from their interlocutor. Their language consists primarily of short and sometimes incomplete sentences in the present, and may be hesitant or inaccurate. On the other hand, since their language often consists of expansions of learned material and stock phrases, they may sometimes sound surprisingly fluent and accurate. Pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax may be strongly influenced by the first language.12 Frequent misunderstandings may arise but, with repetition or rephrasing, Novice High speakers can generally be understood by sympathetic interlocutors used to non-natives. When called on to handle a variety of topics and perform functions pertaining to the Intermediate level, a Novice High speaker can sometimes respond in intelligible sentences, but will not be able to sustain sentence-level discourse.
Speakers at the Novice Mid sublevel communicate minimally by using a number of isolated words and memorized phrases limited by the particular context in which the language has been learned. When responding to direct questions, they may say only two or three words at a time or give an occasional stock answer. They pause frequently as they search for simple vocabulary or attempt to recycle their own and their interlocutor's words. Novice Mid speakers may be understood with difficulty even by sympathetic interlocutors accustomed to dealing with non-natives. When called on to handle topics and perform functions associated with the Intermediate level, they frequently resort to repetition, words from their native language, or silence.
Speakers at the Novice Low sublevel have no real functional ability and, because of their pronunciation, may be unintelligible. Given adequate time and familiar cues, they may be able to exchange greetings, give their identity, and name a number of familiar objects from their immediate environment. They are unable to perform functions or handle topics pertaining to the Intermediate level, and cannot therefore participate in a true conversational exchange.
Novice level speaker: List
This Novice-level speech sample is a list of highly predictable food items: a list of foods included in a traditional Turkish breakfast. The speaker produces eight items correctly but with the mispronunciations and hesitations that are expected of a Novice-level speaker.
1 Distinguished level speakers are able to express succinct messages by using parts of sayings and proverbs for effect and nuance, e.g.: tencere düşmüş…, (it seems that the pot has fallen). Knowledge of deeply embedded cultural references is expected, e.g.: that Nutuk (The Speech) refers to a speech known by all, or that Dersaadet (Door to Happiness) is one of Istanbul’s many names.
2 Turkish is an agglutinative language and, at this level, speakers are expected to combine suffixes to produce a meaningful word e.g.: içivermişçesine (as if he or she had rapidly drunk it).
3 At the Superior level, speakers are expected to have full control of word order, agglutination, harmony, intonation and cases. They are expected to have strong control over embedded clauses and complex usage of cases.
4 While the mechanics of verbal conjugation in Turkish is easy to understand, the creation of narration and description incorporates complex structures and connectors. For example: Sinemaya gidecektim ama gidemedim. (I was going to go to the movies, but I was not able to.); Çocukken bahçede oynardık. (When we were children, we used to play in the yard.)
5 Advanced level speakers are expected to demonstrate control over linguistic devices such as connectors, -(y)Ip/-(y)IncA/-(y)Iken; reported speech, e.g.: gittiğini söyledi, okuyacağını söyledi (s/he said that s/he went; s/he said that s/he was going to read); and relativisers, e.g.: -(y)An and -DIk , batan gemi (the sinking ship/the ship that sank) konuştuğun kişi (the person you were talking to/ you talked to/ you are talking to) Geç kalıp bilet alamadığımdan dolayı konsere gidemeyeceğiz (Since I was late and not able to buy tickets, we will not be able to go to the concert.)
6 Speakers at Advanced High level may begin employing Turkish patterns of intonation. For example, they may place emphasis on the word preceding the verbal predicate in statements, and articulate the fall in pitch before the particle mI in yes/no questions.
7 Advanced level speakers are able to differentiate the functions of the two past tense markers –DI and –mIş. For example: Ali sınıfa geldi. (Ali came to the classroom.) Ali sınıfa gelmiş. (Apparently Ali came to the classroom.)
8 Grammatical roughness in Turkish is exhibited by patterns of problems such as uneven control of vowel and consonant harmony, partial control over conjugation and agglutination, and issues with possessive use. For example: seyredir vs. seyreder (S/he watches); içir vs. içer; (S/he drinks); başlalım vs. başlayalım (Let us begin); Onun arabasıya bindim vs. Onun arabasına bindim (I got in his car); Evisine gittim vs. Evine gittim (I went to his/her house.)
9 Communicative strategies to clarify meaning at Advanced Low level may include interjections. For example: Hay Allah! (Oh, my God!); Aman! (Watch out!/Too bad!); Eyvah! (Oh my!/Pity!); Ya! (Gosh) ); İşte (So../I mean..) etc.
10 Control over the structure of simple questions is expected in wh-questions and the yes/no questions (particle mI). For example: Ahmet nerede? Bu kitap senin mi? Neden Türkçe öğreniyorsun? Gelmiyor musun? (Where is Ahmet? Is this book yours? Why are you learning Turkish? Aren’t you coming?)
11 Novice level speakers will show lack of control over some Turkish-specific sounds. For example: oldu/öldü (happened/died).
12 E.g., mispronunciation of cognates doktor (doctor); üniversite (university), etc.